Exploring Earth - Curriculum links

The Canadian Space Agency, in collaboration with the Exploring Earth project partners, is committed to providing teachers with educational materials that connect with the science and geography curricula from all Canadian provinces and territories. The following table summarizes the links to the Canadian National Standards for Geography and the Common Framework of Science Learning Outcomes for each topic associated with the interactive map.

To identify which curriculum links apply to your classroom activities, first choose a category of interest (Cryosphere, Water Bodies, Terrestrial Biomes, Natural Hazards and Weather, Landforms, Human Footprint, Bird Migration, Miscellaneous), then select the topic, geographic area or grade range that is most applicable to your classroom.

Cryosphere
Topic Geographic Reference Grades Links to the Canadian National Standards for Geography Links to the Common Framework of Science Learning Outcomes
Icebergs Northern Canada 4-8

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Physical processes shape patterns in the physical environment
  • Global patterns of wind and water

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • Effects of human modification of the physical environment

Earth and space science

  • 311-12 Describe factors that affect glaciers and polar ice caps, and describe their consequent effects on the environment
  • 332-1 Describe interactions of components of the hydrosphere, including the cryosphere
Sea ice Arctic and Antarctic 4-8

Essential Element 2: Places and Regions

  • Factors that influence people's perception of places and regions
  • Changes in places and regions over time
  • How culture affects places and regions

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • Limits and opportunities of the physical environment for human activities

Earth and space science

  • 301-1 Predict how the removal of a plant or animal population affects the rest of the community
  • 301-2 Relate habitat loss to the endangerment or extinction of plants and animals

Life science

  • 332-1 Describe interactions of the components of the hydrosphere, including the cryosphere
Ice on the great lakes Eastern North America 6-8

Essential Element 2: Places and Regions

  • Physical and human characteristics of places and regions in Canada

Essential Element 4: Human Systems

  • Transportation and communication networks in Canada
  • Types and patterns of economic activity

Life science

  • 301-1 Predict how the removal of a plant or animal population affects the rest of the community
  • 301-2 Relate habitat loss to the endangerment or extinction of plants and animals
  • 301-5 Describe effects of wind, water, and ice on the landscape
Glaciers and ice sheets Greenland 8-12

Essential Element 1: The World in Spatial Terms

  • Map, globe and atlas use

Essential Element 2: Places and Regions

  • Physical and human processes shape places and regions

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • Environmental Issues

Earth and space science

  • 311-12 Describe factors that affect glaciers and polar ice caps, and describe their consequent effects on the environment
  • 332-1 Describe interactions of components of the hydrosphere, including the cryosphere
Snowpack Northern Canada 9-12

Essential Element 2: Places and regions

  • Critical issues and problems of places and regions

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Inter-annual climate variation

Essential Element 6: The Uses of Geography

  • Interaction of physical and human systems and influence on current and future conditions

Physical science

  • 308-9 describe the laws of reflection of visible light and their applications in everyday life

Earth and space science

  • 311-12 describe factors that affect glaciers and polar ice caps, and describe their consequent effects on the environment
  • 332-1 describe interactions of components of the hydrosphere, including the cryosphere
Permafrost Northern Canada 9-12

Essential Element 2: Places and Regions

  • Changes in places and regions over time
  • Critical issues and problems of places and regions

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • Environmental issues
  • Global effects of human modification of the physical environment

Earth and space science

  • 311-3 relate various meteorological, geological, and biological processes to the formation of soils
  • 311-12 describe factors that affect glaciers and polar ice caps, and describe their consequent effects on the environment
  • 332-3 describe major interactions among the hydrosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere

Life science

  • 318-4 explain why different ecosystems respond differently to short-term stresses and long-term changes
Water bodies
Topic Geographic Reference Grades Links to the Canadian National Standards for Geography Links to the Common Framework of Science Learning Outcomes
Meandering rivers Northern South America 4-5

Essential Element 2: Places and Regions

  • Perceptions of places and regions

Essential Element 3: Physical systems

  • Physical processes shape Earth's features and patterns
  • River systems of Canada

Earth and space science

  • 301-5 Describe effects of wind, water, and ice on the landscape
  • 332-2 Analyse energy and matter transfer in the water cycle
  • 332-3 Describe major interactions among the hydrosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere
Lakes Russia 4-10

Essential Element 1: The World in Spatial Terms

  • Distribution of major human and physical features at country and global scales

Essential Element 2: Places and Regions

  • Changes in places and regions over time

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • Effects of human modification of the physical environment
  • Interaction of physical and human systems and influence on current and future conditions

Earth and space science

  • 102-11 Identify examples of water in the environment and describe ways that water is obtained, distributed and used
  • 311-7 Describe processes that lead to the development of ocean basins and continental drainage systems
  • 311-8 Analyse factors that affect productivity and species distribution in marine and freshwater environments
  • 311-11 Describe processes of erosion and deposition that result from wave action and water flow
Lagoons Central South America 6-8

Essential Element 2: Places and Regions

  • Changes in places and regions over time

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • Limits and opportunities of the physical environment for human activities
  • Effects of human modification of the physical environment

Earth and space science

  • 311-7 Describe processes that lead to the development of ocean basins and continental drainage systems
  • 311-8 Analyse factors that affect productivity and species distribution in marine and freshwater environments
  • 311-11 Describe processes of erosion and deposition that result from wave action and water flow
Braided rivers New Zealand 6-10

Essential Element 2: Places and Regions

  • Changes in places and regions over time

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Physical processes shape Earth's features and patterns
  • Global patterns of wind and water
  • River systems of Canada and the world

Earth and space science

  • 301-5 describe effects of wind, water, and ice on the landscape
  • 331-7 describe how soil composition and fertility can be altered and how these changes could affect an ecosystem
  • 311-11 describe processes of erosion and deposition that result from wave action and water flow
  • 332-2 analyse energy and matter transfer in the water cycle
River deltas Madagascar 6-10

Essential Element 1: The World in Spatial Terms

  • Locational technology

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • River systems of Canada and the world
  • Physical processes shape patterns in the physical environment

Earth and space science

  • 331-7 describe how soil composition and fertility can be altered and how these changes could affect an ecosystem
  • 310-3 classify various types of soil according to their characteristics and investigate ways to enrich soils
  • 332-2 analyse energy and matter transfer in the water cycle
Bays Canada 6-12

Essential Element 1: The World in Spatial Terms

  • Distribution of major human and physical features at country and global scales

Essential Element 2: Places and Regions

  • Changes in places and regions over time
  • Regional analysis of geographic issues and questions

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • World patterns of biodiversity
  • Ecozones

Earth and space science

  • 102-11 Identify examples of water in the environment and describe ways that water is obtained, distributed and used
  • 311-7 Describe processes that lead to the development of ocean basins and continental drainage systems
  • 332-3 Describe major interactions among the hydrosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere

Life Science

  • 208-5 State a prediction and a hypothesis based on background information or an observed pattern of events (e.g., predict what an aquatic ecosystem will look like in 25 years based on characteristics of the area and the long-term changes observed in similar sites)
Oceans Atlantic and Pacific Oceans 8-12

Essential Element 1: The World in Spatial Terms

  • Distribution of major human and physical features at country and global scales

Essential Element 2: Places and regions

  • Changes in places and regions over time

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Global ocean and atmosphere systems

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • Effects of human modification of the physical environment
  • Interaction of physical and human systems and influence on current and future conditions

Earth and space science

  • 102-11 Identify examples of water in the environment and describe ways that water is obtained, distributed and used
  • 311-7 Describe processes that lead to the development of ocean basins and continental drainage systems
  • 311-8 Analyse factors that affect productivity and species distribution in marine and freshwater environments
  • 330-7 Describe the characteristics of Canada's three oceans
Seas Mediterranean Sea 8-12

Essential Element 1: The World in Spatial Terms

  • Distribution of major human and physical features at country and global scales

Essential Element 2: Places and Regions

  • Changes in places and regions over time

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Global ocean and atmosphere systems

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • Effects of human modification of the physical environment
  • Interaction of physical and human systems and influence on current and future conditions

Earth and space science

  • 102-11 Identify examples of water in the environment and describe ways that water is obtained, distributed and used
  • 311-7 Describe processes that lead to the development of ocean basins and continental drainage systems
  • 311-8 Analyse factors that affect productivity and species distribution in marine and freshwater environments
  • 330-7 Describe the characteristics of Canada's three oceans
  • 331-6 Analyse the impact of external factors on an ecosystem
Terrestrial biomes
Topic Geographic Reference Grades Links to the Canadian National Standards for Geography Links to the Common Framework of Science Learning Outcomes
Temperate Grassland Central North America K-6

Essential Element 1: The World in Spatial Terms

  • Location and distribution physical and human features

Essential Element 2: Places and Region

  • Concept of formal (uniform) regions

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Concept of an ecosystem

Life science

  • 301-2 Relate habitat loss to the endangerment or extinction of plants and animals
  • 302-2 Describe how a variety of animals are able to meet their basic needs in their habitat
  • 318-3 Explain why ecosystems with similar characteristics can exist in different geographical locations
Temperate deciduous forest Southeastern North America 2-8

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Ecozones

Essential Element 4: Human Systems

  • Types and patterns of human settlement
  • Patterns and processes of migration past and present

Life science

  • 301-2 Relate habitat loss to the endangerment or extinction of plants and animals
  • 302-2 Describe how a variety of animals are able to meet their basic needs in their habitat
  • 318-3 Explain why ecosystems with similar characteristics can exist in different geographical locations
Tropical dry forest Central America 4-9

Essential Element 2: Places and Regions

  • The importance of places and regions to individual and social identity
  • Political and historical characteristics of regions
  • Regional analysis of geographic issues and questions

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • World patterns of biodiversity
  • Ecozones

Life science

  • 302-2 Describe how a variety of animals are able to meet their basic needs in their habitat
  • 318-7 Compare Canadian biomes in terms of climate, vegetation, physical geography, and location

Earth and space science

  • 310 Explain how Earth provides both a habitat for life and a resource for society
Desert Northern Africa 4-10

Essential Element 2: Places and regions

  • Physical and human characteristics of places and regions within the province and Canada
  • Changes in places and regions over time
  • Regional analysis of geographic issues and questions

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • World patterns of biodiversity
  • Ecozones

Life science

  • 318-3 Explain why ecosystems with similar characteristics can exist in different geographical locations
  • 302-2 Describe how a variety of animals are able to meet their basic needs in their habitat

Earth and space science

  • 310 Explain how Earth provides both a habitat for life and resources for society
  • 330-10 Describe the processes and technologies involved in developing an Earth resource, from exploration to extraction to refinement
Temperate rainforest Western Canada 6-9

Essential Element 1: The World in Spatial Terms

  • Distribution of major human and physical features at country and global scales

Essential Element 2: Places and Regions

  • Factors that influence people's perception of places and regions

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Ecozones
  • Implications of the hydrologic cycle

Life science

  • 301-2 Relate habitat loss to the endangerment or extinction of plants and animals
  • 302-2 Describe how a variety of animals are able to meet their basic needs in their habitat
  • 318-3 Explain why ecosystems with similar characteristics can exist in different geographical locations
Savannah Central Africa 6-10

Essential Element 2: Places and Regions

  • Changes in places and regions over time

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Ecozones

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • Effects of human modification of the physical environment

Life science

  • 301-2 Relate habitat loss to the endangerment or extinction of plants and animals
  • 302-2 Describe how a variety of animals are able to meet their basic needs in their habitat
  • 318-3 Explain why ecosystems with similar characteristics can exist in different geographical locations
Tundra Iceland 6-12

Essential Element 2: Places and regions

  • The importance of places and regions to individual and social identity
  • Political and historical characteristics of regions
  • Regional analysis of geographic issues and questions

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • World patterns of biodiversity
  • Ecozones

Life science

  • 302-2 Describe how a variety of animals are able to meet their basic needs in their habitat
  • 318-7 Compare Canadian biomes in terms of climate, vegetation, physical geography, and location

Earth and space science

  • 310 Explain how Earth provides both a habitat for life and resources for society
Boreal forest Eastern North America 9-12

Essential Element 2: Places and regions

  • The importance of places and regions to individual and social identity
  • Political and historical characteristics of regions
  • Regional analysis of geographic issues and questions

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • World patterns of biodiversity

Life science

  • 302-2 Describe how a variety of animals are able to meet their basic needs in their habitat
  • 318-7 Compare Canadian biomes in terms of climate, vegetation, physical geography, and location

Earth and space science

  • 310 Explain how Earth provides both a habitat for life and resources for society
Chaparral Western Australia 9-12

Essential Element 2: Places and regions

  • Physical and human characteristics of places and regions within the province and Canada
  • Changes in places and regions over time
  • Regional analysis of geographic issues and questions

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • World patterns of biodiversity
  • Ecozones

Life science

  • 213-6 Use library and electronic research tools to collect information on a given topic
  • 318-7 Compare Canadian biomes in terms of climate, vegetation, physical geography, and location
  • 302-2 Describe how a variety of animals are able to meet their basic needs in their habitat

Earth and space science

  • 310 Explain how Earth provides both a habitat for life and resources for society
Tropical rainforest Central Africa 9-12

Essential Element 2: Places and regions

  • Political and historical characteristics of regions
  • Regional analysis of geographic issues and questions

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • World patterns of biodiversity
  • Ecozones
  • World climate regions
  • Inter-annual climate variation

Life science

  • 302-2 Describe how a variety of animals are able to meet their basic needs in their habitat
  • 318-7 Compare Canadian biomes in terms of climate, vegetation, physical geography, and location
  • 300-19 Examine and describe some living things that cannot be seen with the naked eye

Earth and space science

  • 310 Explain how Earth provides both a habitat for life and resources for society
  • 331-6 Analyse the impact of external factors on an ecosystem
Natural hazards and weather
Topic Geographic Reference Grades Links to the Canadian National Standards for Geography Links to the Common Framework of Science Learning Outcomes
Thunderstorms Central North America 2-5

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Basic components of Earth's physical systems
  • Hydrologic cycle
  • Extreme natural events

Earth and space science

  • 200 Ask questions about objects and events in their immediate environment and develop ideas about how those questions might be answered
  • 102-3 Observe changes in sunlight and describe how these changes affect living things
  • 101-6 Describe ways of measuring and recording environmental changes that occur in daily and seasonal cycles
Volcanic eruptions Hawaii 2-7

Essential Element 1: The World in Spatial Terms

  • Distribution of major human and physical features on Earth

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Physical processes shape Earth's features and patterns
  • Extreme natural events

Earth and space science

  • 311-4 examine some of the catastrophic events, such as earthquakes or volcanic eruptions, that occur on or near Earth's surface
  • 210-6 interpret patterns and trends in data, and infer and explain relationships among the variables (e.g., explain the relationship between catastrophic events and the contact areas of tectonic plates)
  • 332-9 relate plate tectonics to the processes that change Earth's surface
Landslides Western North America 3-8

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Physical processes shape Earth's features and patterns
  • Causes and patterns of extreme natural events

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • Impact of natural and technological hazards/disasters on the human and physical environment

Earth and space science

  • 100-38 Compare the absorption of water by different soils and describe the effect of moisture on characteristics of the soils
  • 100-39 Observe and describe the effects of moving water on different soils
  • 301-7 Describe natural phenomena that cause rapid and significant changes to the landscape
Wildfires Central North America 4-8

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Extreme natural events
  • Causes and patterns of extreme natural events

Essential Element 6: The Uses of Geography

  • Interaction of physical and human systems and influence on current and future conditions

Life science

  • 301-1 Predict how the removal of a plant or animal population affects the rest of the community
  • 301-2 Relate habitat loss to the endangerment or extinction of plants and animals
  • 301-5 Describe effects of wind, water, and ice on the landscape
  • 301-7 Describe natural phenomena that cause rapid and significant changes to the landscape
Desertification Northeastern Africa 4-9

Essential Element 2: Places and Regions

  • Changes in places and regions over time

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • Effects of human modification of the physical environment
  • Environmental issues

Essential Element 6: The Uses of Geography

  • Interaction of physical and human systems and influence on current and future conditions

Social and environmental contexts of science and technology

  • 108-2 Describe intended and unintended effects of a scientific or technological development

Life science

  • 301-1 Predict how the removal of a plant or animal population affects the rest of the community

Earth and space science

  • 311-3 Relate various meteorological, geological, and biological processes to the formation of soils
Dust storms Australia 6-12

Essential Element 2: Places and Regions

  • Political and historical characteristics of regions

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Components of the Earth's physical system

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • Impacts of major natural hazards/disasters on humans

Earth and space science

  • 301-5 Describe effects of wind, water, and ice on the landscape
  • 301-7 Describe natural phenomena that cause rapid and significant changes to the landscape
  • 311-3 Relate various meteorological, geological, and biological processes to the formation of soils
  • 331-7 Describe how soil composition and fertility can be altered and how these changes could affect an ecosystem
Flooding Central North America 6-12

Essential Element 2: Places and Regions

  • Critical issues and problems of places and regions

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • World patterns of extreme events
  • Inter-annual climate variation

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • Impacts of major natural hazards/disasters on humans

Earth and space science

  • 301-5 Describe effects of wind, water, and ice on the landscape
  • 301-7 Describe natural phenomena that cause rapid and significant changes to the landscape
  • 332-3 Describe major interactions among the hydrosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere
Earthquakes Japan 6-12

Essential Element 2: Places and Regions

  • Political and historical characteristics of regions

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Components of the Earth's physical system

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • Impacts of major natural hazards/disasters on humans

Earth and space science

  • 301-7 Describe natural phenomena that cause rapid and significant changes to the landscape
  • 311-4 Examine some of the catastrophic events, such as earthquakes or volcanic eruptions, that occur on or near Earth's surface
  • 331-9 Describe methods of monitoring and predicting earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and plate interactions
Hurricanes and cyclones Caribbean and Atlantic regions 6-12

Essential Element 2: Places and Regions

  • Political and historical characteristics of regions

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Components of the Earth's physical system

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • Impacts of major natural hazards/disasters on humans
  • Extreme natural events

Earth and space science

  • 301-7 Describe natural phenomena that cause rapid and significant changes to the landscape
  • 311-4 Examine some of the catastrophic events, such as earthquakes or volcanic eruptions, that occur on or near Earth's surface
  • 330-4 Analyse the interactions between the atmosphere and human activities
  • 330-7 Describe the characteristics of Canada's three oceans
  • 332-2 Analyse energy and matter transfer in the water cycle
Volcanoes Hawaii 9-12

Essential Element 1: The World in Spatial Terms

  • Distribution of major human and physical features on Earth

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Physical processes shape Earth's features and patterns
  • Extreme natural events

Earth and space science

  • 311-4 Examine some of the catastrophic events, such as earthquakes or volcanic eruptions, that occur on or near Earth's surface
  • 210-6 Interpret patterns and trends in data, and infer and explain relationships among the variables (e.g., explain the relationship between catastrophic events and the contact areas of tectonic plates)
  • 332-9 Relate plate tectonics to the processes that change Earth's surface
Landforms
Topic Geographic Reference Grades Links to the Canadian National Standards for Geography Links to the Common Framework of Science Learning Outcomes
Mountains Himalayan Range 2-8

Essential Element 1: The World in Spatial Terms

  • Distribution of major human and physical features on Earth

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Physical processes shape Earth's features and patterns
  • World climate regions

Initiating and planning

  • 200 Ask questions about objects and events in their immediate environment and develop ideas about how those questions might be answered

Earth and space science

  • 210-6 Interpret patterns and trends in data, and infer and explain relationships among variables (e.g., explain the relationship between catastrophic events and the contact areas of tectonic plates)
  • 311-1 explain the processes of mountain formation and the folding and faulting of Earth's surface
Impact craters Western North America 4-8

Essential Element 1: The World in Spatial Terms

  • Location of major human and physical features on Earth

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Extreme natural events
  • Physical processes shape patterns in the physical environment

Earth and space science

  • 311-4 Examine some of the catastrophic events, such as earthquakes or volcanic eruptions, that occur on or near Earth's surface
  • 331-3 Relate various meteorological, geological, and biological processes to the formation of soils
Dunes Southwestern Africa 4-10

Essential Element 1: The World in Spatial Terms

  • Distribution of major physical features at country and global scales

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Physical processes shape patterns in the physical environment
  • Global patterns of wind and water
  • Components of the Earth's physical system

Earth and space science

  • 100-37 Investigate and describe soil components
  • 301-5 Describe effects of wind, water, and ice on the landscape
  • 301-7 Describe natural phenomena that cause rapid and significant changes to the landscape
  • 332-3 Describe major interactions among the hydrosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere
Waterfalls Southeastern Africa 4-10

Essential Element 1: The World in Spatial Terms

  • Distribution of major human and physical features on Earth

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Physical processes shape Earth's features and patterns
  • Components of the Earth's physical system
  • Global patterns of wind and water

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • Limits and opportunities of the physical environment for human activities

Earth and space science

  • 301-5 Describe effects of wind, water, and ice on the landscape
  • 311-11 Describe processes of erosion and deposition that result from wave action and water flow
Canyons Grand Canyon 4-10

Essential Element 1: The World in Spatial Terms

  • Location of major human and physical features on Earth

Essential Element 2: Places and Regions

  • Physical and human characteristics of regions
  • Regions defined by multiple criteria

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Physical processes shape Earth's features and patterns
  • World patterns of biodiversity

Earth and space science

  • 102-11 Identify examples of water in the environment and describe ways that water is obtained, distributed and used
  • 311-7 Describe processes that lead to the development of ocean basins and continental drainage systems
  • 332-3 Describe major interactions among the hydrosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere

Life Science

  • 105-1 Identify examples of scientific questions and technological problems that are currently being studied (e.g., identify factors that affect migrations)
Beaches Eastern Canada 5-9

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Global patterns of wind and water
  • River systems of Canada and the world

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • Effects of human modification of the physical environment
  • Watershed management

Earth and space science

  • 301-5 Describe effects of wind, water, and ice on the landscape
  • 311-11 Describe processes of erosion and deposition that result from wave action and water flow
Wetlands Eastern North America 6-8

Essential Element 1: The World in Spatial Terms

  • Distribution of major human and physical features at country and global scales

Essential Element 2: Places and Regions

  • Physical and human characteristics of places and regions in Canada and the world

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Ecozones

Earth and space science

  • 311-3 relate various meteorological, geological, and biological processes to the formation of soils
  • 331-7 describe how soil composition and fertility can be altered and how these changes could affect an ecosystem

Life science

  • 318-3 explain why ecosystems with similar characteristics can exist in different geographical locations
Peatlands Northern Canada 6-10

Essential Element 1: The World in Spatial Terms

  • Distribution of major human and physical features at country and global scales

Essential Element 2: Places and Regions

  • Physical and human characteristics of places and regions in Canada and the world

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Ecozones

Earth and space science

  • 311-3 relate various meteorological, geological, and biological processes to the formation of soils
  • 331-7 describe how soil composition and fertility can be altered and how these changes could affect an ecosystem

Life science

  • 318-3 explain why ecosystems with similar characteristics can exist in different geographical locations
Salt pan Central Africa 6-12

Essential Element 1: The World in Spatial Terms

  • Distribution of major human and physical features and country and global scales

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • World climate regions
  • Physical processes shape patterns in the physical environment
  • Implications of the hydrologic cycle

Earth and space science

  • 301-5 describe effects of wind, water, and ice on the landscape
  • 332-2 analyse energy and matter transfer in the water cycle
  • 332-3 describe major interactions among the hydrosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere
Relic glacier forms Norway 6-12

Essential Element 1: The World in Spatial Terms

  • Distribution of major human and physical features at country and global scales

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Physical processes shape patterns in the physical environment
  • Ecozones (polar regions)

Earth and space science

  • 301-5 Describe effects of wind, water, and ice on the landscape
  • 311-7 describe processes that lead to the development of ocean basins and continental drainage systems
  • 332-1 describe interactions of components of the hydrosphere, including the cryosphere
  • 332-7 describe geological evidence that suggests life forms, climate, continental positions, and Earth's crust have changed over time
Islands and archipelagos Hawaii 6-12

Essential Element 1: The World in Spatial Terms

  • Distribution of major human and physical features on Earth

Essential Element 2: Places and Regions

  • Changes in places and regions over time
  • Interdependence of places and regions
  • Critical issues and problems of places and regions

Earth and space science

  • 331-9 Describe methods of monitoring and predicting earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and plate interactions
  • 332-8 Analyse evidence for plate tectonics history
  • 332-9 Relate plate tectonics to the processes that change the Earth's surface
Coral reefs Great Barrier Reef 8-12

Essential Element 1: The world in Spatial Terms

  • Distribution of major human and physical features at country and global scales

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Global ocean and atmospheric systems
  • World patterns of biodiversity

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • Environmental issues

Earth and space science

  • 331-6 Analyse the impact of external factors on an ecosystem

Life science

  • 208-5 State a prediction and a hypothesis based on background information or an observed pattern of events

Social and environmental contexts of science and technology

  • 108-8 Describe the potential impact of the use by humans of regional natural resources
Faults Rocky Mountains 9-12

Essential Element 2: Places and regions

  • Physical and human processes shape places and regions

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Components of Earth's physical system
  • Plate tectonics

Earth and space science

  • 311-1 explain the processes of mountain formation and the folding and faulting of Earth's surface
  • 332-3 describe major interactions among the hydrosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere
  • 332-7 describe geological evidence that suggests life forms, climate, continental positions, and Earth's crust have changed over time
  • 332-8 analyse evidence for plate tectonics theory
  • 332-9 relate plate tectonics to the processes that change Earth's surface
Folds Appalachian Range 9-12

Essential Element 2: Places and Regions

  • Physical and human processes shape places and regions

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Components of Earth's physical system
  • Plate tectonics

Earth and space science

  • 311-1 Explain the processes of mountain formation and the folding and faulting of Earth's surface
  • 332-3 Describe major interactions among the hydrosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere
  • 332-7 Describe geological evidence that suggests life forms, climate, continental positions, and Earth's crust have changed over time
  • 332-8 Analyse evidence for plate tectonics theory
  • 332-9 Relate plate tectonics to the processes that change Earth's surface
Sinkholes Southwestern United States 10-12

Essential Element 2: Places and Regions

  • Changes in places and regions over time
  • Critical issues and problems of places and regions

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Components of Earth's physical system
  • Global ocean and atmosphere systems

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • Global effects of human modification of the physical environment
  • Environmental issues
  • Impacts of major natural hazards/disasters on humans

Earth and space science

  • 332-3 Describe major interactions among the hydrosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere
  • 301-7 Describe natural phenomena that cause rapid and significant changes to the landscape

Physical science

  • 113-1 Identify some positive and negative effects and intended and unintended consequences of a particular scientific or technological development

Initiating and planning

  • 208-2 Identify questions to investigate arising from practical problems and issues
Human footprint

Essential Element 1: The World in Spatial Terms

  • Location of major human and physical features on Earth

Essential Element 4: Human Systems

  • Transportation and communication networks in Canada and the world
  • Regional development in Canada and the world
  • Processes of cultural diffusion
Topic Geographic Reference Grades Links to the Canadian National Standards for Geography Links to the Common Framework of Science Learning Outcomes
Mining Northern Canada 2-8

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Basic components of Earth's physical systems
  • Patterns of land use and economic activity in the community

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • Earth's natural resources

Social and environmental contexts of science and technology

  • 107-6 Provide examples of how science and technology have been used to solve problems around the world
  • 107-9 Compare past and current needs, and describe some ways in which science and technology have changed the way people work, live, and interact with the environment
  • 112-3 Explain how society's needs can lead to developments in science and technology

Earth and space science

  • 310-1 describe the composition of Earth's crust
Deforestation Northern South America 4-8

Essential Element 2: Places and regions

  • Changes in places and regions over time
  • How culture affects places and regions

Essential Element 4: Human Systems

  • Human settlement patterns and land use

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • Environmental Issues

Social and environmental contexts of science and technology

  • 107-9 Compare past and current needs, and describe some ways in which science and technology have changed the way people work, live, and interact with the environment
  • 108-2 Describe intended and unintended effects of a scientific or technological development

Life science

  • 301-1 Predict how the removal of a plant or animal population affects the rest of the community
Highways Southeastern United States 4-8

Nature of science and technology

  • 111-5 Describe the science underlying particular technologies designed to explore natural phenomena, extend human capabilities, or solve practical problems

Initiation and planning

  • 208-2 Identify questions to investigate arising from practical problems and issues

Physical science

  • 107-9 Compare past and current needs, and describe some ways in which science and technology have changed the way people work, live, and interact with the environment

Earth and Space science

  • 108-1 Identify positive and negative effects of familiar technologies
Airports Southeastern Unites States 4-9

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Climate types

Essential Element 4: Human Processes

  • Transportation and communication networks in Canada and the world
  • Population density, distribution and growth rates

Nature of science and technology

  • 111-5 Describe the science underlying particular technologies designed to explore natural phenomena, extend human capabilities, or solve practical problems

Initiating and planning

  • 208-2 Identify questions to investigate arising from practical problems and issues

Earth and space science

  • 106-4 Describe instances where scientific ideas and discoveries have led to new inventions and applications
Air pollution 4-10

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Causes and patterns of extreme natural events

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • Effects of human modification of the physical environment
  • Environmental issues

Social and environmental contexts of science and technology

  • 108-1 Identify positive and negative effects of familiar technologies
  • 108-2 Describe intended and unintended effects of a scientific or technological development
  • 113-1 Identify some positive and negative effects and intended and unintended consequences of a particular scientific or technological development
  • 113-2 Describe possible positive and negative effects of a particular scientific or technological development, and explain how different groups in society may have different needs and desires in relation to it
Light pollution Central Canada 4-12

Essential Element 1: The World in Spatial Terms

  • Latitude, longitude and the global grid

Essential Element 2: Places and Regions

  • Regional analysis of geographic issues and questions

Essential Element 4: Human Systems

  • Population density, distribution and growth rates

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • Global effects of human modification of the physical environment

Social and environmental contexts of science and technology

  • 108-2 Describe intended and unintended effects of a scientific or technological development
  • 113-2 Describe possible positive and negative effects of a particular scientific or technological development, and explain how different groups in society may have different needs and desires in relation to it

Earth and space science

  • 330-4 analyse the interactions between the atmosphere and human activities
  • 331-6 analyse the impact of external factors on an ecosystem
Oil and gas Western Canada 4-12

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Physical processes shape Earth's features and patterns

Essential Element 4: Human Systems

  • Types of economic activity

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • Renewable and non-renewable resources
  • Human modification of the physical landscape

Social and environmental contexts of science and technology

  • 107-6 Provide examples of how science and technology have been used to solve problems around the world
  • 108-1 Identify positive and negative effects of familiar technologies
  • 112-3 Explain how society's needs can lead to developments in science and technology

Earth and space science

  • 310-1 describe the composition of Earth's crust
Urbanization Western Africa 4-12

Essential Element 1: The World in Spatial Terms

  • Major cities of the province and Canada

Essential Element 4: Human Systems

  • Population density, distribution and growth rates
  • Human settlement patterns and land use
  • Internal structure of cities
  • Economic development by world regions, country and regions within countries

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • Effects of human modification of the physical environment

Social and environmental contexts of science and technology

  • 108-1 Identify positive and negative effects of familiar technologies
  • 113-1 Identify some positive and negative effects and intended and unintended consequences of a particular scientific or technological development
  • 113-13 Propose a course of action on social issues related to science and technology, taking into account human and environmental needs
  • 114-6 Relate personal activities and various scientific and technological endeavours to specific science disciplines and interdisciplinary studies

Analysing and interpreting

  • 206-9 Identify new questions or problems that arise from what was learned
Solar energy Germany 6-8

Essential Element 4: Human Systems

  • Regional development in Canada and the world
  • Types and patterns of economic activity

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • Changes in the importance of energy sources

Social and environmental contexts of science and technology

  • 108-4 Describe how technological products and systems can be used to conserve natural resources
  • 107-8 Describe examples of technologies that have been developed to improve their living conditions
  • 107-9 Compare past and current needs, and describe some ways in which science and technology have changed the way people work, live, and interact with the environment
Utilities Eastern North America 6-12

Essential Element 2: Places and regions

  • Regional analysis of geographic issues and questions

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Causes and patterns of extreme natural events

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • Impact of natural and technological hazards/disasters on the human and physical environment

Social and environmental contexts of science and technology

  • 107-6 Provide examples of how science and technology have been used to solve problems around the world
  • 107-8 Describe examples of technologies that have been developed to improve their living conditions
  • 107-9 Compare past and current needs, and describe some ways in which science and technology have changed the way people work, live, and interact with the environment

Analysing and interpreting

  • 206-9 Identify new questions or problems that arise from what was learned

Nature of science and technology

  • 111-1 Provide examples of scientific knowledge that have resulted in the development of technologies
Agriculture North American Prairies 6-12

Essential Element 4: Human Systems

  • Types and patterns of economic activity

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • Limits and opportunities of the physical environment for human activities
  • Use and sustainability of resources

Relationships between science and technology

  • 111-1 Provide examples of scientific knowledge that have resulted in the development of technologies

Social and environmental contexts of science and technology

  • 112-3 Explain how society's needs can lead to developments in science and technology

Earth and space science

  • 311-3 Relate various meteorological, geological, and biological processes to the formation of soils
Offshore hydrocarbon industry Gulf of Mexico 8-12

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Global ocean and atmosphere systems

Essential Element 4: Human Systems

  • Types of economic activity
  • Transportation and communication networks in Canada and the world

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • Effects of human modification of the physical environment
  • Environmental issues
  • Use and sustainability of resources

Relationships between science and technology

  • 111-5 Describe the science underlying particular technologies designed to explore natural phenomena, extend human capabilities, or solve practical problems

Physical science

  • 113-1 Identify some positive and negative effects and intended and unintended consequences of a particular scientific or technological development

Initiating and planning

  • 208-2 Identify questions to investigate arising from practical problems and issues

Social and environmental contexts of science and technology

  • 118-1 Compare the risks and benefits to society and the environment of applying scientific knowledge or introducing a technology

Earth and space science

  • 330-11 Identify factors in responsibly developing Earth's resources
Maritime shipping Northwestern Africa 9-12

Essential Element 4: Human Systems

  • Cities as providers of goods and services
  • Transportation and communications networks in Canada and the world
  • Types and patterns of economic activity
  • Global economic interdependence

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • World patterns of resource distribution and utilization

Social and environmental contexts of science and technology

  • 107-9 Compare past and current needs, and describe some ways in which science and technology have changed the way people work, live, and interact with the environment
  • 112-3 Explain how society's needs can lead to developments in science and technology
  • 113-1 Identify some positive and negative effects and intended and unintended consequences of a particular scientific or technological development

Relationships between science and technology

  • 111-5 Describe the science underlying particular technologies designed to explore natural phenomena, extend human capabilities, or solve practical problems
Miscellaneous
Topic Geographic Reference Grades Links to the Canadian National Standards for Geography Links to the Common Framework of Science Learning Outcomes
Aurora borealis Northern Canada 2-12

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Earth-sun relationships
  • Physical processes shape patterns in the environment
  • Global ocean and atmospheric systems

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • Physical environment influences human activities
  • Limits and opportunities of the physical environment for human activities

Earth and space science

  • 300-23 Describe the physical characteristics of components of the solar system
  • 312-6 Describe the effects of solar phenomena on Earth
  • 331-5 Analyse meteorological data for a given time span and predict future weather conditions using appropriate methodologies and technologies
Canada's marine parks Northern Canada 6-9

Essential Element 2: Places and Regions

  • World political regions

Essential Element 3: Physical Systems

  • Global patterns of wind and water

Essential Element 5: Environment and Society

  • Watershed management

Social and environmental contexts of science and technology

  • 112-5 Provide examples of public and private Canadian institutions that support scientific and technological research and endeavours
  • 113-13 Propose a course of action on social issues related to science and technology, taking into account human and environmental needs

Life science

  • 215-4 Identify multiple perspectives on a science-related decision or issue
Canada's national parks Western Canada 6-12

Essential Element 2: Places and Regions

  • The importance of places and regions to individual and social identity
  • Political and historical characteristics of regions

Essential Element 6: The Uses of Geography

  • Influence of geographical features on the evolution of significant historic events and movements

Social and environmental contexts of science and technology

  • 112-5 Provide examples of public and private Canadian institutions that support scientific and technological research and endeavours
  • 113-13 Propose a course of action on social issues related to science and technology, taking into account human and environmental needs

Life science

  • 215-4 Identify multiple perspectives on a science-related decision or issue
Bird migration
Topic Geographic Reference Grades Links to the Canadian National Standards for Geography Links to the Common Framework of Science Learning Outcomes
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