Maritime Monitoring and Messaging Microsatellite (M3MSat)
Demonstrating new technologies to advance space-based solutions
Satellites offer unique tools to support a number of different activities on Earth. As space technology evolves, so does the potential for what satellites can do and the services they can provide.
The Canadian Maritime Monitoring and Messaging Microsatellite (M3MSat) is the latest of small-but-mighty spacecraft sent to test innovative technologies in space before they're deployed on full-scale missions. The mission aims to improve Canada's space-based capabilities to detect ships and manage marine traffic. It will also test a device that could change the way we monitor the health and safety of satellites.
M3MSat demonstrates the kinds of unique solutions that space and new technologies can provide. It is also a great example of collaboration between government, industry and academia to drive innovation in Canada's space sector.
Enhancing Canada's capabilities for monitoring maritime traffic from space
Automatic Identification System (AIS) technology transmits important information on ships' identity, heading and speed. Ships use AIS signals to detect other ships and avoid collisions at sea, and coastal authorities use them to enhance marine safety and monitor maritime traffic.
The placement of AIS technology on satellites in recent years has revolutionized how we monitor and manage marine safety by providing a more complete view of maritime traffic. One of the main objectives of M3MSat is to build on and improve Canada's space-based AIS capabilities.
Part of M3MSat's mission is to test an AIS antenna with advanced capabilities that promises higher performance for identification and conflict resolution of the signals. The compact antenna was designed by the University of Waterloo and is the first and only one of its kind.
While in space, M3MSat will also test a device, the Low Data Rate Service (LDRS), to ensure surveillance and data continuity when AIS receivers cannot provide real-time coverage. The LDRS will receive transmissions collected by stations in remote areas such as the Arctic. Then it will pass the information on to Canadian marine traffic control centres.
Improving the way we monitor the health and safety of satellites
The accumulation of static energy in a satellite is detrimental to its electronics. While it is possible to reduce the charge by raising the temperature of the spacecraft temporarily, we currently have no way to determine when that needs to be done. M3MSat will test the Dielectric Deep Charge Monitor (DDCM), a device designed to measure the static energy that has accumulated in the satellites' electronics. If successful, the DDCM could improve the way we build and monitor the health and safety of satellites, and help extend the life of satellites in orbit.
Mission overview: The satellite, testing, launch and operations
The microsatellite's box-shaped frame weighs about as much as the average person and is small enough to fit in most household dishwashers. It uses a new type of generic satellite platform design (developed by the University of Toronto Space Flight Lab) that could be used for future missions. The graphic below illustrates the components of the spacecraft. In this diagram, the three elements to be tested—the AIS antenna, the LDRS antenna and the DDCM payload—sit together on the top of the satellite.
Credit: Honeywell (Formerly COM DEV)
Space Qualification Testing:
In preparation for the intense experience of a rocket launch and the extreme temperatures associated with space flight, M3MSat has undergone a series of critical tests. Many of these were completed at the Canadian Space Agency's (CSA's) David Florida Laboratory (DFL), Canada's world-class spacecraft assembly, integration and testing centre located in Ottawa.
M3MSat will be launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) from Sriharikota, India. It will lift off aboard a Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) along with Canadian company GHGSat's first demonstration satellite. GHGSat will test a new way to measure greenhouse gas emissions from industrial facilities. The company has benefitted from CSA funding, both through the Space Technology Development Program and the Earth Observation Applications Development Program.
After the launch, M3MSat will circle the Earth from pole to pole at an altitude of 630 km—roughly twice that of the International Space Station. It will travel over Canadian waters approximately ten times a day. The estimated lifespan of the satellite is two years.
The satellite will be operated by the Satellite Operations Centre at the CSA.
Operators will use AIS aboard M3MSat independently or in conjunction with RADARSAT-2 by comparing Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images with information captured by M3MSat.
M3MSat is a joint mission of the CSA and Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC). The CSA is responsible for the LDRS and DDCM instruments, and DRDC is responsible for the AIS. The AIS instrument comes from DRDC Ottawa's Space Systems group.
The satellite was built by Ontario-based company COM DEV International (now Honeywell Canada), with support from the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies and the University of Waterloo.
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